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To draw a criminal drag him from a horse to place of execution is from early 14c. To draw a blank "come up with nothing" is an image from lotteries.

As a noun, from s; colloquial sense of "anything that can draw a crowd" is from the verb in this sense is s.

Draw-game is from As a verb, "to leave undecided," from In addition to the idioms beginning with draw.

Synonyms Examples Word Origin. Middle English word dating back to —; see origin at draw , -ing 1. The concert drew a large audience.

Draw up the contract. The deposits draw interest. Let's draw straws to see who has to wash the car. She draws six feet. He had to draw spades first in order to make the contract.

A sail draws by being properly trimmed and filled with wind. The day draws near. I can't paint, but I can draw.

Our newspaper advertisement drew very well. Also called draw play. Compare veer 1 def 2b. He drew his hand away from the hot stove.

The lead runner gradually drew away from his competitor. I heard them debating the point, but I avoided being drawn in.

He sensed winter drawing on. She drew on her cape and gloves. The biography has drawn heavily on personal interviews. You'll find she's quite interesting if you take the trouble to draw her out.

The boat drew out from the wharf. She drew her money out of the bank and invested it in bonds. To be sure, finger painting, as found in prehistoric cave paintings, has occasionally been practiced since the late Renaissance and increasingly so in more recent times.

For drawing as such, however, the method is irrelevant. Although it is antedated by the brush, which in some cultures East Asia, for example has remained in continued use, the pen has been the favorite writing and drawing tool ever since classical antiquity.

The principle of transferring dyestuffs with the pen has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years.

The capillary effect of the split tip, cut at a slant, applies the drawing fluid to the surface parchment, papyrus, and, since the late Middle Ages, almost exclusively paper in amounts varying with the saturation of the pen and the pressure exerted by the drawing hand.

The oldest form is that of the reed pen ; cut from papyrus plants, sedge, or bamboo, it stores a reservoir of fluid in its hollow interior.

Rembrandt made superb use of the strong, plastic accents of the reed pen, supplementing it as a rule with other pens or brushes.

Beginning in the 19th century with the Dutch artist van Gogh , pure reed-pen drawings with a certain forcefulness of expression have been created by many artists.

Expressionists such as George Grosz used the reed pen frequently. If the selection of the reed pen already implies a formal statement of sorts, that of the quill pen opens up a far wider range of possibilities.

Ever since the rise of drawing in Western art—that is, since the late Middle Ages—the quill has been the most frequently used instrument for applying liquid mediums to the drawing surface.

The supple tip of the quill, available in varying strengths, permits a relatively wide scale of individual strokes—from soft, thin lines, such as those used in preliminary sketches for illustrations in illuminated books, through waxing and waning lines that allow differentiation within the stroke, to energetic, broad lines.

Although all dyestuffs of low viscosity lend themselves to pen drawing , the various inks are most often employed.

The manufacture of gallnut ink had been known from the medieval scriptoria copying rooms set apart for scribes in monasteries. An extract of gallnuts mixed with iron vitriol and thickened with gum-arabic solution produces a writing fluid that comes from the pen black, with a strong hint of purple violet, and dries almost black.

In the course of time it turns a darkish brown, so that the writing fluid in old manuscripts and drawings cannot always be identified by the colour alone.

In contrast to other brown writing fluids, the more strongly coloured parts of gallnut ink remain markedly darker; and because inks of especially great vitriol content decompose the paper, the drawing, particularly in its more coloured portions, tends to shine through on the reverse side of the sheet.

Only industrially produced chemical inks possess the necessary ion balance to forestall this undesirable effect. Another ink, one that seems to have found no favour as a writing fluid but has nonetheless had a certain popularity in drawing, is bistre , an easily dissolved, light-to-dark-brown transparent pigment obtained from the soot of the lampblack that coats wood-burning chimneys.

Its shade depends both on the concentration and on the kind of wood from which it is derived, hardwoods especially oaks producing a darker shade than conifers, such as pine.

During the pictorially oriented Baroque period , in the 17th and early 18th centuries, the warm tone that can be thinned at will made bistre a popular medium with which to supplement the planes of a pen drawing.

Also derived from a carbon base is India ink , made from the soot of exceptionally hard woods, such as olive or grape vines, or from the fatty lampblack of the oil flame, with gum-arabic mixed in as a binding agent.

This deep-black, thick fluid preserves its dark tone for a long time and can be thinned with water until it becomes a light gray.

Pressed into sticks or bars, it was sold under the name of Chinese ink or India ink. This writing fluid, known already in Egypt and used to this day in China and India , has been manufactured in Europe since the 15th century.

Favoured in particular by German and Dutch draftsmen because of its strong colour, it lent itself above all to drawing on tinted paper.

Since the 19th century, India ink has been the most popular drawing ink for pen drawings, replacing all other dyestuffs in technical sketches.

Only very recently have writing inks gained some significance in art drawing—in connection with the practical fountain pen. For a relatively short time, a dyestuff of animal origin, sepia , obtained from the pigment of the cuttlefish , was used for drawing.

Known since Roman times, it did not come into general use until the 18th century. Compared to yellowish bistre, it has a cooler and darker tone, and is brown with a trace of violet.

Until the 18th century, it was employed by such amateur painters as the poet Goethe because of its effectiveness in depth; as a primary pigment, however, it has been completely replaced by industrially manufactured watercolours.

Other dyestuffs are of only minor importance compared with these inks, which are primarily used for pen drawings. Minium red lead was used in the medieval scriptoria for the decoration of initial letters and also in illustrated pen drawings.

Chinese white is easier to apply with a pointed brush because of its thickness; other pigments, among them indigo and green copper sulfate, are rarely found in drawings.

For them, too, the brush is a better tool than the pen. The systematically produced watercolours of various shades are almost wholly restricted to technical drawings.

In combination with written texts, pen drawings are among the oldest artistic documents. Already in classical times, texts were illustrated with firm contours and sparse interior details.

During the Middle Ages, marginal drawings and book illustrations were time and again pre-sketched, if not definitively executed, with the pen.

In book painting, decidedly delineatory styles developed in which the brush was also employed in the manner of a pen drawing: The thin-lined outline sketch is also characteristic of the earliest individual drawings of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance.

Sketches after ancient sculptures or after nature as well as compositions dealing with familiar motifs form the main themes of these drawings.

Such sheets were primarily used as models for paintings; gathered in sketchbooks, they were often handed on from one generation to the next.

The practical usefulness of these drawings is attested by the supplements added to them by younger artists and by the fact that many metalpoint drawings that had become hard to decipher were redrawn with the pen, as shown by the sketchbooks of the 15th-century Italian artist Antonio Pisanello , now broken up and preserved in several different collections.

In the 16th century, the artistic range of the pen drawing reached an individual articulation that it hardly ever attained again.

Every artist was free to exploit with the pen the formal possibilities that corresponded to his talents. Thus Leonardo used a precise stroke for his scientific drawings; Raphael produced relaxed sketches, in which he probed for forms and variations of form; Michelangelo drew with short strokes reminiscent of chisel work; Titian contrasted light and dark by means of hachures laid broadly over the completed figures.

Among the Northerners, Dürer mastered all the possibilities of pen drawing, from quick notation to the painstakingly executed autonomous drawing, ranging from a purely graphic and delineatory technique to a spatial and plastic modelling one; it is no wonder that he stimulated so many other artists.

A special form of exact drawing is found in models for engravings; some of these were directly mounted on the wood block; some anticipate the style of the copperplate engraving in the pen-drawing stage, with waxing and waning lines, delicate stroke layers, and cross-hatching for spatial and plastic effects.

In the 17th century, the pen drawing took second place to combined techniques, especially wash , a sweep or splash of colour, applied with the brush.

An open style of drawing that merely hints at contours, along with contrasting thin and powerful strokes, endowed the line itself with expressive qualities.

In his numerous drawings, Rembrandt in particular achieved an exceedingly subtle plastic characterization and even light values through the differentiation of stroke layers and the combination of various pens and brushes.

Additional techniques came to the fore in the 18th century, with the pen sketch providing the scaffold for the drawing that was carried out in a pictorial style.

Only decorative sketches and practical studies were laid out more often as linear drawings. The closed, thin-contour drawing regained its importance with Neoclassicism at the end of the 18th century.

Luke, who lived in monastic style and Romantics consciously referred to the early Renaissance manner of drawing, modelling with thin lines.

With closed contours, carefully set hair-and-shadow strokes, and precise parallel hachures, they attained plastic values by purely graphic means.

The pure pen drawing took its place by the side of other highly esteemed art forms. The English Art Nouveau artist Aubrey Beardsley at the end of the 19th century applied the direct black—white contrast to planes, while in the 20th century the French masters Henri Matisse and Picasso reduced the object to a mere line that makes no claim to corporeal illusion.

A large number of illustrators, as well as the artists who draw the comic strips, prefer the clear pen stroke. In the hair-thin automatist seismograms so-called because of their resemblance to the records of earthquakes of the 20th-century German artist Wols Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze , which are sensitive to the slightest stirring of the hand, this theme leads to a new dimension transcending all traditional concepts of a representational art of drawing.

Although the brush is best suited to the flat application of pigments—in other words, to painting—its use in a clearly delineatory function, with the line dominating and a crucial property of brush drawing in monochrome fashion, can be traced back to prehistoric times.

All of the above-mentioned drawing inks have been used as dyes in brush drawings, often with one and the same pigment employed in combined pen-and-brush work.

Still greater differentiation in tone is often obtained through concentrated or thinned mediums and with the addition of supplementary ones.

To the latter belong chiefly distemper, a paint in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of egg or size or both, and watercolours, which can be used along with bistre and drawing ink.

Even oils can sometimes be used for individual effects in drawing, as in the works of Jacob Jordaens. Sinopia , the preliminary sketch for a monumental wall painting , was done with the brush and has all the characteristics of a preparatory, form-probing drawing.

The sketch was carried out directly on the appropriate spot and covered over with a thin layer of plaster, on which the pictorial representation was then painted.

The brush drawing differs from the pen drawing by its greater variation in stroke width, and by the stroke itself, which sets in more smoothly and is altogether less severely bordered.

Early brush drawings nonetheless show a striking connection with the technique of the pen drawing. The early examples of the 15th century completely follow the flow of contemporaneous pen drawings.

The brush drawing for chiaroscuro sheets on tinted paper was popular because Chinese white, the main vehicle of delineation in this method, is more easily applied with the brush than the pen and because the intended pictorial effect is more easily attained, thanks to the possibility of changing abruptly to a plane representation.

Such representations are particularly distinctive as done by Vittore Carpaccio and Palma il Giovane in Venice and in a Mannerist spotting technique used by Parmigianino.

In the 16th century, the brush nevertheless played a greater role as a supporting than as an independently form-giving instrument.

Pure brush drawings were rare even in the 17th century, although the brush played a major role in landscapes, in which, by tinting of varying intensity, it ideally fulfilled the need to provide for all desired degrees of spatial depth and strength of lighting.

Dutch artists, such as Adriaen Brouwer , Adriaen van Ostade , and Jan Steen , as well as the French artist Claude Lorrain , transcended the limits of drawing in the narrower meaning of the term by doing brushwork limited to a few tones within a monochrome scale, giving the impression of a pictorial watercolour.

The brush drawings of the Spanish painter Francisco Goya must also be counted among the great achievements of this technique. In his strong plastic effects, the English painter George Romney made the most of the contrast between the white foundation and the broad brushstrokes tinted in varying intensities.

Turner , took advantage of the delicately graded pictorial possibilities for their landscape studies. In modern drawing, the brush has regained some importance as an effective medium for contrasting planes and as carrier of the theme; in this, the dry brush has proven itself a useful tool for the creation of a granular surface structure.

The combination of various techniques plays a greater role in drawing than in all other art forms. Yet it is necessary, in the numerous drawings in which two or more mediums are involved, to distinguish between those in which the mediums were changed in the course of artistic genesis and those in which an artistic effect based on a combination of mediums was intended from the beginning.

In the first case, one is confronted with a preliminary sketch, as it were, of the eventual drawing: Most pen drawings are thus superimposed on a preliminary sketch.

The different materials actually represent two separate stages of the same artistic process. More relevant artistically is the planned combination of different techniques that are meant to complement each other.

The most significant combination from the stylistic point of view is that of pen and brush, with the pen delineating the contours that denote the object and the brush providing spatial and plastic as well as pictorial—that is, colour—values.

The simplest combined form is manuscript illumination , where the delineated close contours are filled in with colour.

More important is brushwork that supplements linear drawing, in which entire segments may be given over to one technique or the other; for example, the considerable use of white which is hard to apply with the pen in drawings on tinted paper.

In similar complementary fashion the brush may be used for plastic modelling as a way of highlighting, that is indicating the spots that receive the greatest illumination.

The technique of combined pen-and-brush drawing was favoured by the draftsmen of Germany and the Netherlands, especially in the circle around Dürer and the south German Danube School.

Shadows, too, can be inserted in a drawing with dark paint. The illusion of depth can also be achieved with white and dark colours in a pure chalk technique.

In contrast to these methods, which still belong to a linear system of drawing, is the flat differentiation of individual segments of a work in usually the same medium: Various bodies and objects are evenly tinted with the brush within or along the drawn contours.

Planes are thus contrasted with lines, enhancing the illusionary effect of plasticity, space, and light and shadow. This modelling wash has been used again and again since the 16th century, sometimes in combination with charcoal, chalk, or pencil drawings.

A further refinement, used particularly in landscape drawings, is wash in varying intensities; additional shadings in the sense of atmospheric phenomena, such as striking light and haze merging into fog and cloud, can be rendered through thinning of the colour or repeated covering over a particular spot.

A chromatic element entered drawing with the introduction of diluted indigo , known in the Netherlands from the East India trade; it is not tied to objects but used in spatial and illusionist fashion, by Paul Brill and Hans Bol in the 16th and 17th centuries, for example.

The mutual supplementation and correlation of pen and brush in the wash technique was developed most broadly and consistently in the 17th century, in which the scaffold, so to speak, of the pen drawing became lighter and more open, and brushwork integrated corporeal and spatial zones.

The transition from one technique to the other—from wash pen drawings to brush drawings with pen accents—took place without a break.

Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin in 16th- and 17th-century France are major representatives of the latter technique, and Rembrandt once again utilized all its possibilities to the full.

Whereas this method served—within the general stylistic intentions of the 17th century—primarily to elucidate spatial and corporeal proportions, the artists of the 18th century employed it to probe this situation visually with the aid of light.

The unmarked area, the spot left empty, has as much representational meaning as the pen contours, the lighter or darker brush accent, and the tinted area.

The art of omission plays a still greater role, if possible, in the later 19th century and in the 20th. As the colouring becomes increasingly varied through the use of watercolours to supplement a pen or metalpoint drawing, one leaves the concept of drawing in the strict sense of the term.

The combination of dry and fluid drawing mediums provides a genuine surface contrast that may be exploited for sensuous differentiation. Here again a distinction must be made between various ways of applying the identical medium—for example, charcoal and charcoal dust in a water solution or, more frequently, sanguine and sanguine rubbed in with a wet brush—and the stronger contrast brought about by the use of altogether different mediums.

Chalk drawings are frequently washed with bistre or watercolour, after the principle of the washed pen drawing. Stronger contrasts, however, can be obtained if the differing techniques are employed graphically, as the Flemish draftsmen of the 17th century liked to do.

The Chinese ink wash of chalk drawings also contributes to the illusion of spatial depth. Along with such Dutch painters as Jan van Goyen and members of the family van de Velde, Claude Lorrain achieved great mastery in this technique.

The differentiated treatment of the foreground with pen and brush and the background with chalk renders spatial depth plausible and plastic.

Mechanical aids are far less important for art drawing than for any other art form. Many draftsmen reject them altogether as unartistic and inimical to the creative aspect of drawing.

Apart from the crucial importance that mechanical aids have had and continue to have for all kinds of construction diagrams, plans, and other applied drawings, some mechanical aids have been used in varying but significant measure for artistic drawings.

The ruler, triangle, and compass as basic geometric instruments have played a major role, especially in periods in which artists created in a consciously constructionist and perspectivist manner.

Marks for perspective constructions may be seen in many drawings of early and High Renaissance vintage. For perspectively correct rendition, the graticulate frame, marked off in squares to facilitate proportionate enlargement or reduction, allowed the object to be drawn to be viewed in line with a screen on the drawing surface.

Fixed points can be marked with relative ease on the resultant system of coordinates. For portrait drawings, the glass board used into the 19th century had contours and important interior reference points marked on it with grease crayons or soap sticks, so that they could be transferred onto paper by tracing or direct copying.

Both processes are frequently used for preliminary sketches for engravings to be duplicated, as is the screened transmission of a preliminary sketch onto the engraving plate or, magnifying, the painting surface.

In such cases the screen lies over the preparatory drawing. Mirrors and mirror arrangements with reducing convex mirrors or concave lenses were likewise used especially in the 17th and 18th centuries as drawing aids in the preparation of reproductions.

Even when it was a matter of the most exact rendition of topographical views, such apparatus, as well as the camera obscura a darkened enclosure having an aperture usually provided with a lens through which light from external objects enters to form an image on the opposite surface , were frequently employed.

In a darkened room the desired section is reflected through a lens onto a slanting mirror and from that inverse image is reflected again onto the horizontally positioned drawing surface.

Lateral correction can be obtained by means of a second mirror. Unless the proportions do not allow it, true-to-scale reducing or enlarging can also be carried out with the aid of the tracing instrument called the pantograph.

When copying, the crayon or pencil inserted in the unequally long feet of the device reproduces the desired contours on the selected scale.

Most of these aids were thus used in normal studio practice and for the preparation of certain applied drawings. Equally practical, but useful only for closely circumscribed tasks, were elliptic compasses, curved rulers, and stencils, particularly for ornamental and decorative purposes.

Mechanically produced drawings—such as typewriter sketches, computer drawings, oscillograms—and drawings done with the use of a projector, all of which can bring forth unusual and attractive results, nevertheless do not belong to the topic because they lack the immediate creativity of the art drawing.

Applied and technical drawings differ in principle from art drawings in that they record unequivocally an objective set of facts and on the whole disregard aesthetic considerations.

The contrast to the art drawing is sharpest in the case of technical project drawings, the purpose of which is to convey not so much visual plausibility as to give exact information that makes possible the realization of an idea.

Such plans for buildings, machines, and technical systems are not instantly readable because of the orthogonal independent projection, the division into separate planes of projection, and the use of symbols.

Prepared as a rule with such technical aids as ruler and compass, they represent a specialized language of their own, which must be learned. For topographic detailed delineation of the features of a place and cartographic map-making drawings, too, a special terminology has developed that above all systematizes spatial representations, making them intelligible to the expert with the aid of emblems and symbols.

Equally far removed from any claim to artistic standing are most illustrations serving scientific purposes, the aim of which is to record as objectively as possible the characteristic and typical features of a given phenomenon.

The systematic drawings, used especially in the natural sciences to explain a system or a function, resemble plans; descriptive and naturalistic illustrations, on the other hand, approach the illusionistic plausibility of visual experience and can attain an essentially artistic character.

A good many artists have drawn scientific illustrations, and their works—the botanical and zoological drawings of the Swiss Merian family in the 17th and 18th centuries, for example—are today more esteemed for their artistic than for their documentary value.

Of a similarly ambivalent nature is the illustrative drawing that perhaps does not go beyond a simple pictorial rendition of a literary description but because of its specific formal execution may still satisfy the highest artistic demands.

Great artists have again and again illustrated Bibles, prayer books, novels, and literature of all kinds. From such overdrawn types developed continuous picture stories that could dispense to a considerable extent with the explanatory text.

Modern cartoons are based on these picture stories. Through the formally identical treatment of peculiar types, these drawings acquire an element of consecutiveness that, by telling a continuing story, adds a temporal dimension to two-dimensional drawing.

This element is strongest in trick drawings that fix on paper, in brief segments of movement, invented creatures and phenomena that lack all logical plausibility; a rapid sequence of images leafing through the pages, seeing it projected on the screen turns the whole into apparent motion, the fundamental process of animation.

The artistic achievement, if any, lies in the original invention; its actual realization is predetermined and sometimes carried out by a large and specialized staff of collaborators, often with the aid of stencils and traced designs.

Moreover, since the final result is partially determined by the mechanical multiplication, an essential criterion of drawing—the unity of work and result—does not apply.

Anything in the visible or imagined universe may be the theme of a drawing. In practice, however, by far the greatest number of art drawings in the Western world deal with the human figure.

This situation springs from the close bond between drawing and painting: Yet, so rounded, self-contained, and aesthetically satisfying are these drawings that their erstwhile role as handmaidens to the other pictorial arts can be reconstructed only from knowledge of the completed work, not from the drawing itself.

This situation is especially true of a pictorial theme that acquired, at a relatively early stage, an autonomous rank in drawing itself: Drawn 15th-century portraits—by Pisanello or Jan van Eyck , for example—may be considered completed pictorial works in their concentration, execution, and distribution of space.

The clear, delicately delineated representation follows every detail of the surface, striving for realism. The profile, rich in detail, is preferred; resembling relief, it is akin to the medallion.

Next in prominence to the pure profile, the three-quarter profile, with its more spatial effect, came to the fore, to remain for centuries the classic portrait stance.

The close relationship to painting applies to practically all portrait drawings of the 15th century. The choice of the softer medium, the contouring , which for all its exactitude is less severely self-contained, and the more delicate interior drawing with plane elements gives these drawings a livelier, more personal character and accentuates once more their proximity to painting.

In polychromatic chalk technique and pastel, portrait drawing maintained its independence into the 19th century. In pastel painting, the portrait outweighed all other subjects.

In the choice of pose, type, and execution, portrait painting, like other art forms, is influenced by the general stylistic features of an epoch.

Thus, the extreme pictorial attitude of the late Baroque and Rococo was followed by a severer conception during Neoclassicism, which preferred monochrome techniques and cultivated as well the special form of the silhouette , a profile contour drawing with the area filled in in black.

Unmistakably indebted to their 15th-century predecessors, the creators of portrait drawings of the early 19th century aimed once more at the exact rendition of detail and plastic effects gained through the most carefully chosen graphic mediums: More interested in the psychological aspects of portraiture, late 19th- and 20th-century draftsmen preferred the softer crayons that readily follow every artistic impulse.

The seizing of characteristic elements and an adequate plane rendition weighed more heavily with them than realistic detail. As early as the 15th century, landscape drawings, too, attained enough autonomy so that it is hard to distinguish between the finished study for the background of a particular painting and an independent, self-contained sketched landscape.

But it was Dürer who developed landscape as a recollected image and autonomous work of art, in short, as a theme of its own without reference to other works.

His watercolours above all but also the drawings of his two Italian journeys, of the surroundings of Nürnberg , and of the journey to the Netherlands, represent the earliest pure landscape drawings.

Centuries had to pass before such drawings occurred again in this absolute formulation. Landscape elements were also very significant in 16th-century German and Dutch drawings and illustrations.

The figurative representation, still extant in most cases, is formally quite integrated into the romantic forest-and-meadow landscape, particularly in the works of the Danube School — Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber , for example.

More frequently than in other schools, one finds here carefully executed nature views. In the Netherlands, Pieter Bruegel drew topographical views as well as free landscape compositions, in both cases as autonomous works.

In the 17th century, the nature study and the landscape drawing that grew out of it reached a new high. The landscape drawings of the Accademia degli Incamminati those of Domenichino , for example combined classical and mythological themes with heroic landscapes.

The Frenchman Claude Lorrain , living in Rome, frequently worked under the open sky, creating landscape drawings with a hitherto unattained atmospheric quality.

This type of cultivated and idealized landscape, depicted also by Poussin and other Northerners residing in Rome they were called Dutch Romanists in view of the fact that so many artists from the Netherlands lived in Rome, their drawings of Italy achieving an almost ethereal quality , is in contrast with the unheroic, close-to-nature concept of landscape held primarily by the Netherlanders when depicting the landscape of their native country.

All landscape painters—their landscape paintings a specialty that was strongly represented in the artistically specialized Low Countries—also created independent landscape drawings Jan van Goyen and Jacob van Ruisdael and his uncle and cousin, for example , with Rembrandt again occupying a special position: Landscape drawings of greater artistic freedom, as well as imaginary landscapes, were done most successfully by some French artists, among them Hubert Robert ; pictorially and atmospherically, these themes reached a second flowering in the brush-drawn landscapes of such English artists as Turner and Alexander Cozens , whose influence extends well into the 20th century.

Given their strong interest in delineation, the 18th-century draftsmen of Neoclassicism and, even more, of Romanticism observed nature with topographical accuracy.

Landscape drawings and even more, watercolours, formed an inexhaustible theme in the 19th century. Landscapes formed part of the work of many 20th-century draftsmen, but, for much of the century, the genre as such took second place to general problems of form, in which the subject was treated merely as a starting point.

However, during the last 30 years of the 20th century, a large number of American artists returned to representation, thus reinvesting in the landscape as a subject.

Compared to the main themes of autonomous drawing—portraiture and landscape—all others are of lesser importance. Figure compositions depend greatly on the painting of their time and are often directly connected with it.

There were, to be sure, artists who dealt in their drawings with the themes of monumental painting, such as the 17th-century engraver and etcher Raymond de La Fage; in general, however, the artistic goal of figure composition is the picture, with the drawing representing but a useful aid and a way station.

Genre scenes, especially popular in the 17th-century Low Countries as done by Adriaen Brouwer , Adriaen van Ostade , and Jan Steen , for example and in 18th-century France and England, did attain some independent standing.

Still lifes can also lay claim to being autonomous drawings, especially the representations of flowers, such as those of the Dutch artist Jan van Huysum , which have been popular ever since the 17th century.

Here, again, it is true that a well-designed arrangement transforms an immediate nature study into a pictorial composition. In some of these compositions the similarity to painting is very strong; the pastels of the 19th- and 20th-century artist Odilon Redon , for instance, or the work of the 20th-century German Expressionist Emil Nolde , with its chromatic intensity, transcend altogether the dividing line between drawing and painting.

In still lifes, as in landscapes, autonomous principles of form are more important to modern artists than the factual statement. Drawings with imaginary and fanciful themes are more independent of external reality.

Dream apparitions, metamorphoses , and the entwining of separate levels and regions of reality have been traditional themes. The late 15th-century phantasmagoric works of Hieronymus Bosch are an early example.

There are allegorical peasant scenes by the 16th-century Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel and the carnival etchings of the 17th-century French artist Jacques Callot.

Others whose works illustrate what can be done with drawing outside landscape and portraiture are: Nonrepresentational art , with its reduction of the basic elements of drawing—point, line, plane—to pure form, offered new challenges.

Through renunciation of associative corporeal and spatial relationships, the unfolding of the dimensions of drawing and the structure of the various mediums acquire new significance.

The graphic qualities of the line in the plane as well as the unmarked area had already been emphasized in earlier times—for example, in the grotteschi of Giuseppe Arcimboldo in the 16th century the fanciful or fantastic representations of human and animal forms often combined with each other and interwoven with representations of foliage, flowers, fruit, or the like and in calligraphic exercises such as moresques strongly stylized linear ornament, based on leaves and blossoms —but mostly as printing or engraving models for the most disparate decorative tasks interior decoration, furniture, utensils, jewelry, weapons, and the like.

There is one field in which drawing fulfills a distinct function: In many cases, no execution of these plans was envisaged; since the early Renaissance, such ideal plans have been drawn to symbolize, in execution and accessories, an abstract content.

Despite the often considerable exactitude with which the plans are drawn, the personal statement predominates in the flow of the line.

This personal note clearly identifies the drawings of such artists and architects as Albrecht Altdorfer , Leonardo, Michelangelo, Bernini, Francesco Borromini , and Piranesi.

Also distinct from the ground-plan type of architectural drawing are the art drawings of autonomous character created by such 20th-century architects as Erich Mendelsohn and Le Corbusier.

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Page 1 of 2. Next page History of drawing. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In his drawings based on the numerous experiments he undertook, Leonardo found a stylized form of representation that was uniquely his own, especially in his studies of whirlpools.

He managed to break down a phenomenon into its component parts—the traces of water or eddies of the whirlpool—yet….

More About Drawing 14 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References animation in cinematography In motion-picture technology: Animation association with caricature In caricature and cartoon: Caricature drafting In drafting: Types of drawings interior design In interior design: Achievement as a draftsman Gainsborough In Thomas Gainsborough: London period Hogarth In William Hogarth: Youth and early career Ingres In J.

Victoria and Albert Museum - What is Drawing? Art Encyclopedia - Fine Art Drawing.

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